All of us have heard this abbreviation, but we will give you a precise answer to the question: what does DNA stand for in science? DNA is a short name for Deoxyribonucleic acid. Shortly, DNA is something that every living creature is made of. The purpose of DNA is actually to store information. Let’s explain.
The explanation of DNA was first offered by Frederick Miescher. It happened in 1869. This was a great contribution to science.
DNA is similar to a code because it is consisted of “directions” how to construct all other parts of cells. When we say “it stores information” this actually means it stores genes and manages their later use. DNA is composed of 2 polymer chains. Those are nucleotides. They are mutually opposite in direction. Genetic information is copied into the RNA after being read by DNA stretches. That is the process known as transcription.
Inside the cells, DNA is made of chromosomes. Before cells are divided, the chromosomes duplicate first; this is what we call replication of DNA. This is the division of cells which results in two cells that have to contain the same information like their mother-cell. There are four nitrogenous bases within the DNA molecule. Those are: Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine and Guanine. Genes are composed of bases.
In case of DNA damaging, the sequence of DNA will be changed. This happens when there is mutagen factor involved. These mutagens are highly radioactive. The damage that occurs as a result of the radiation is determined by the mutagen type. When mutagens get in between two pairs of bases, the intercalation takes place. When this process starts, DNA base pairs separate and the strands of DNA distort. This causes a mutation. This process has been thoroughly studies in order to use it in treating certain diseases like cancers, for example.